Friday, July 3, 2020
Ayn RandÃ¢â¬â¢s unflinching political confutation for socialism conveyed throughout her mighty work Atlas Shrugged is a passionate allegorical account regarding how one should exist only for the benefit of oneself. This idea is expressed through an assortment of RandÃ¢â¬â¢s main characters, though none quite so explicitly as Hank Rearden. Ã¢â¬Å"The public good be damned, I will have no part of it!Ã¢â¬ In ReardenÃ¢â¬â¢s bold refutation of Ã¢â¬Ëpublic goodÃ¢â¬â¢ at his trial, Rearden is dismissing the core ideology of socialism and declaring himself an existentialist member of society. At the novelÃ¢â¬â¢s start, Hank Rearden is a simple man trying to make a name for himself in the metal industry so that he can support his family. He lives to content his unappeasable wife Lillian, an antagonist to the storyÃ¢â¬â¢s existentialist themes, and finds no happiness in his interactions with her. We first understand LillianÃ¢â¬â¢s main role as villainous wife when Rearden gifts her with the first piece of his metal crafted into a bracelet for her to wear. She dismisses his loving act, and this is the first instance where Rearden is seen as a lesser (41). LillianÃ¢â¬â¢s main purpose in the novel is to help characterize ReardenÃ¢â¬â¢s conciliatory persona and demonstrate his initial inability to be egotistic. Selfishness, as viewed by Rand, is a positive trait that leads to the success in business and personal affairs. Rearden finally acts upon selfish desires when he falls in love with Dagny Taggart shortly after his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s discontent with his metal bracel et. The affair between Rearden and Dagny is selfish on both ends, but that is the reason why it makes them both so happy. I am proud that [Hank] has chosen me to give him pleasure and that it was he who had been my choice. It was not Ã¢â¬â as it is for most of you Ã¢â¬â an act of casual indulgence and mutual contempt. It was the ultimate form of our admiration for each other, with full knowledge of the values by which we made our choiceÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (318). In the above quote articulated by Dagny when referencing his relations with Hank Rearden, she explains how being with each other was each of their own individual choices. Rearden chose Dagny to pleasure himself and vice versa; there were no outside forces pressuring them together other than the pure admiration for one another that Dagny references. Through this, Rand is demonstrating that by disregarding the good of others and focusing on the pleasure of oneself, great things will emerge. Rearden does not understand this concept prior to his relationship with Dagny, but finally has an egotistical epiphany at his trial where he disputes the good of others and suggests existing for the good of himself. HankÃ¢â¬â¢s statement, Ã¢â¬Å"The public good be damned, I will have no part of it!Ã¢â¬ references the two coinciding themes of existentialism and egoism. The idea of existentialism, existing for oneself instead of for the greater good of others, is conveyed through several different outlets throughout RandÃ¢â¬â¢s work. By supporting capitalism and shooting down communist principles, she expresses the importance of this theme. Public good, as Rand sees it, aims to work toward the greater benefit of a community by taking from others, while existentialism strives for the success of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self. This is key, as the looters take from those who are stronger. By boasting these words in such a public environment, the character experiences a shift where he goes from submission to the powerful figures that aim to control his success to breaking out and declaring his individualist existence. As his trial commences, the judge questions where ReardenÃ¢â¬â¢s absent defense is. Rear den replies, Ã¢â¬Å"I will not play the part of defending myself, where no defense is possible, and I will not simulate the illusion of dealing with a tribunal of justiceÃ¢â¬ (442). With this statement, he is refusing to conform to the expectations of the government and society, proving this point by standing on his own in court. Although he realizes he alone cannot fight the power that the government will exert on him, he makes it very clear to the judge that he does not acknowledge nor believe in any of the principles for which he is being tried for. The purpose of the publicity of this declaration is to demonstrate his opposition to the principles of socialism in a manner that can be heard by all. This is RandÃ¢â¬â¢s way of communicating her philosophy through this growing character. Rand also develops the philosophies of egoism and reason through Hank Rearden. Rand once stated that an Ã¢â¬Å"individual should exist for his own sake, neither sacrificing himself to others nor sacrificing others to himselfÃ¢â¬ (Duignan). This goes hand in hand with the ideas of existentialism portrayed by Rearden as the novel progresses. Existentialism is the core concept of the valley many of the characters find themselves in climatically. In order to stay in the valley, an individual must pledge an oath stating Ã¢â¬Å"I swear by my life and my love of it that I will never live for the sake of another man, nor ask another man to live for mineÃ¢â¬ (670). This captures the central idea of HankÃ¢â¬â¢s quote, simply rephrased. To conclude, ReardenÃ¢â¬â¢s dismissal of public good brings the novel to a climax point; this is where Hank declares his realization that he is living for himself, and not to please anyone, including the government and his dreadful wife Lillian. By Ayn Rand highlighting this outspoken epiphany, she is declaring her own beliefs encouraging capitalism and discouraging the idea that one must exist for the greater good of the community. After all of RandÃ¢â¬â¢s awful experiences with communism, she is showing that being an existentialist is the only way to true success and happiness.
Tuesday, May 26, 2020
The success of architects is defined not so much by the problems they face as the act of their creative and practical responses. Located in once the bombarded Berlin, a new language of architecture emerged. It appears with multiple contradictions, yet not confliction, from itself to the surroundings and within its own construction. That is the Berlin Jewish Museum, submitted by the young Daniel Libeskind in a competition to provoke the unsavory history of Berlin very soon after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. The Western tradition in building museum is twisted by its expressionistic form, not merely to house the remains, the relics, the display of art, it stands by itself naked, untreated to house the ghost of German Judaism, aÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The intention is to make occupants feel physically ill and all of its effects. Precast and cast in-place concrete are customized in tube-like structures which slope variably to resist lateral loads stabilizing the vertical el ements. At some strategic locations with severely angled walls, pre-stressed steel reinforced concrete is an absolute option. Steel is used to bear compressive loads as well as tensile loads. The vertical elements are tied together with beams and slabs which prevent them from cracking. The monolithic appearance and the complication in opening positions and dimensions require a high level of difficulty in pouring concrete, which make this museum become the first model project of its kind to test the new concrete-handling method. The challenge is to avoid segregation in pouring concrete. Timing is the key. The exterior walls are molded with in-situ concrete; the advantage it offers is that the apertures can be made in any shape and size, width and height. It also allows a less amount of columns used, and an expansion for larger, uninterrupted spaces. The extra strength the reinforced concrete gives grants Libeskind the ability to make the concept practical. Also, to maintain the integrity of the Ã¢â¬Å"object,Ã¢â¬ he eliminated conventional roof system, lightweight enclosing, and exposed framework matrix as if all structural members merge in one entity which makes theShow MoreRelatedThe Death Of The Weimar Republic1185 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages For now, IÃ¢â¬â¢m going to leave the Reichstag wrapped up, and move onto LibeskindÃ¢â¬â¢s Jewish museum. Over history it could be argued that the Jews have been the most persecuted religion. This is of course true in Germany. In German history the Jews have being accused of poisoning wells and causing the black death, despite the Jews suffering equally from the disease! The Jews were also accused for the loss of the First World War, despite the Jews having the largest proportional of any religious groupRead MoreThe Legacy Of Daniel Libeskind2248 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages Daniel Libeskind was born in Lodz, Poland on May 12, 1946, to Polish-Jewish parents the year after World War II ended. His parents were Holocaust survivors, but living in postwar Eastern Europe they found that the formal end of the Holocaust did not bring an end to Anti-Semitism violence. As Libeskind told Stanley Meisler of the Smithsonian, Ã¢â¬Å"Anti-Semitism is the only memory I still have of Poland. In school. On the streets. It wasn t what most people think happened after the war was over. It wasRead MoreThe Lack Of A Central Holocaust Memorial1621 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesGerman government decides that the memorial should be devoted only to Jewish victims of the Holocaust and designates a prominent location in the center of the newly-unified city of Berlin: The five-acre site will lie due south of the Brandenburg Gate, which until 1989 had divided East and West Berlin. The site is also just a few steps from the buried remains of the bunker where Adolf Hitler committed suicide. Amidst the Berlin s tremendous construction boom (which garnered it the nickname EuropeRead MoreThe Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe2474 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesThe Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe, also known as the Holocaust Memorial, is a monument in Berlin to commemorate the Jewish victims of the Holocaust. The Memorial for the Murdered Jews of Europe causes us to reflect on how the transgressive ges ture of architecture puts the issue of balance between the medium and the message into question. The memorial could have been viewed as a way to threaten the importance of remembrance. According to Elke Grenzer, Ã¢â¬Å"Architecture itself in a commemorativeRead MoreDigital Fabrications Architectural And Material Techniques2121 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesand then becomes ceiling in one simple motion. Another great example of the use of folds are the wrapped metal corner panels of The Jewish Museum in Berlin, Germany, by Daniel Libeskind. The titanium plates zigzag and fold throughout the faÃ §ade, these folds are expressed in the interior by the angled walls and underground axes. Thanks to the folding technique Libeskind is able to hide the individual floors from the outside, the crisscrossing of the windows seem therefore unsystematic and it helps create
Tuesday, May 19, 2020
This paper will attempt to examine the relationship between the actual reporting of the murders during the time with retellings of the murders in modern popular culture. It will therefore examine sources from the 19th century onward. It will explore both facts and legends associated with the mysterious figure of Jack the Ripper. Public responses both in the original reporting and feedback to modern films will be addressed. This will coincide with the cultural significance of these crimes and how it continues today. The cultural phenomenon of Jack the Ripper will be addressed in how this both fuels the media coverage and how the media fills a desire in its audience. Direct comparisons will be made in some cases to the portrayal of actualÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦There is also quite simply the gruesome nature of these crimes. It is not just Jack the Ripper, but rather all serial killers and general criminals that attract the attention of a variety of audiences. In humanityÃ¢â¬â¢s diametrically opposed worldview, crimes are seen as being committed by delinquents, and criminals are vastly different from the average Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ person. Therefore outlandish and egregious crimes carry more interest in the media. According to a study by the Federal Bureau of Investigations, less than one percent of murders are committed annually by serial killers as opposed to 12.5 percent of murders that are committed by members of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own family. And yet, domestic violence stories are often d ismissed fairly quickly by the media, precisely because of their frequency. Because of this, it is not so much the unknown quantity of Jack the Ripper that generates such broad appeal but rather the rarity of these uniquely horrendous crimes themselves. The histrionics of the retellings have escalated with the times much as they did with the original reportings from the first murder to the last. This tale is as much about the Ripper himself, with his grotesque crimes and unknown identity, as it is about the human condition and psyche. As Coville and Lucanio note, it is Ã¢â¬Å"also Brundeen, 3 the story of the human passion to voyeuristically follow in the RipperÃ¢â¬â¢s footstepsÃ¢â¬ . Details, both of Jack the Ripper
Friday, May 15, 2020
Sample details Pages: 9 Words: 2737 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2019/08/12 Category Society Essay Level High school Tags: Lowering The Drinking Age Essay Did you like this example? Minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) laws provide an example of how scientific research can support effective public policies. Between 1970 and 1975, 29 States lowered their MLDAs; subsequently, scientists found that traffic crashes increased significantly among teenagers. Alcohol use among youth is related to many problems, including traffic crashes, drownings, vandalism, assaults, homicides, suicides, teenage pregnancies, and sexually transmitted diseases. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Minimum Legal Drinking Age Law" essay for you Create order Research has demonstrated the effectiveness of a higher MLDA in preventing injuries and deaths among youth. Despite laws prohibiting the sale or provision of alcohol to people under age 21, minors can easily obtain alcohol from many sources. Increased MLDA enforcement levels and deterrents for adults who might sell or provide alcohol to minors can help prevent additional injuries and deaths among youth. KEYWORDS: minimum drinking age laws; evaluation; history of AOD public policy; public policy on AOD; adolescent; law enforcement; AOD availability; AOD sales; AODR (alcohol and other drug related) injury prevention; AODR mortality; traffic accident; drinking and driving Science can play a critical role in developing effective policies to address health issues, including those focused on alcohol-related problems (Gordis 1991). In an ideal world, public policy development would be based on the identification of a problem and the scientific evidence of the factors that are most effective in reducing that problem. In the real world, however, public policy results from economic and political forces, which occasionally combine with good science. Minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) laws provide an example of how scientific research can support effective public policies. This article shows how science has influenced MLDA policies in the past and summarizes research contributing to the ongoing debate on the MLDA. HISTORY OF THE MLDA Following the repeal of Prohibition, nearly all State laws restricting youth access to alcohol designated 21 as the minimum age for purchasing and consuming alcohol (Mosher 1980). Between 1970 and 1975, however, 29 States lowered the MLDA to age 18, 19, or 20. These changes occurred at the same time that minimum-age limits for other activities, such as voting, also were being lowered (Wechsler and Sands 1980). Scientists began studying the effects of the lowered MLDA, particularly focusing on traffic crashes, the leading cause of death among teenagers. Several studies in the 1970s showed that traffic crashes increased significantly among teenagers after the MLDA was lowered (Cucchiaro et al. 1974; Douglass et al. 1974; Wagenaar 1983, 1993; Whitehead 1977; Whitehead et al. 1975; Williams et al. 1974). With evidence that lower legal drinking ages were associated with more traffic crashes among youth, citizen advocacy groups led a movement to restore the MLDA to 21 in all States (Wolfson 1995). In response, 16 States increased their MLDAs between September 1976 and January 1983 (Wagenaar 1983). Many States, however, resisted pressure from these groups and ignored Government incentives to raise their MLDAs (King 1987). The Federal Government became concerned about the safety both of youth in States that had lower MLDAs and of youth who lived in neighboring States. Persons who were below the MLDA in their own State could drive across State borders to purchase alcohol in a State with a lower MLDA and then return home, increasing the likelihood of being involved in traffic crashes. Because the 21st amendment to the U.S. Constitution guaranteed States rights to regulate alcohol, the Federal Government could not mandate a uniform MLDA of 21. Instead, in 1984 the Federal Government passed the Uniform Drinking Age Act, which provided for a decrease in Federal highway funding to States that did not establish an MLDA of 21 by 1987 (King 1987). Faced with a loss of funding, the remaining States returned their MLDAs to age 21 by 1988. EFFECTIVENESS OF THE MLDA Reductions in Drinking Following the end of Prohibition, each State developed its own set of policies to regulate the distribution, sale, and consumption of alcohol. In addition to the MLDA, examples of other alcohol control policies include excise taxes, restrictions on hours and days of sales, and server training. Many of these other alcohol policies have only recently been evaluated (see Toomey et al. 1994 for a review of the research literature). Of all the alcohol control policies, MLDA policy has been the most studied. Since the 1970s, at least 70 studies have explicitly examined the effects of either increases or decreases in the MLDA, with some studies using more robust research designs than others. MLDA policies may have been evaluated sooner and more often for a variety of reasons, including: (1) a growing concern about youth drinking and driving; (2) availability of archived, time-series data on traffic crashes; (3) the fact that many States first lowered, then raised, their MLDAs; and (4) preli minary research showing the large effects of changes in MLDAs. Thorough literature reviews by Wagenaar (1983, 1993), the United States General Accounting Office (1987), and Moskowitz (1989) provide detailed summaries of many of these studies. MLDA laws have been evaluated mostly in terms of how changing the MLDA affects rates of alcohol use and traffic crashes among youth. Methods used to study the effect of the MLDA on alcohol use have varied widely, contributing to differences in conclusions among studies. For example, some studies used convenience samples, such as students in introductory psychology classes, whereas other studies used sophisticated, random sampling designs to obtain nationally representative samples. Wagenaar (1993) concluded that studies employing strong research and analytical designs typically observed increases in alcohol use among youth following a lowering of the MLDA. In contrast, when many States raised the MLDA, alcohol use among youth decreased. Beer is the alcoholic beverage of choice for most youth. As a result, reduced rates of alcohol use among youth after the MLDA was increased were primarily evident in decreased rates of beer consumption (Berger and Snortum 1985). Rates of wine and distilled spirits use among youth did not change dramatically following the rise in the MLDA (Barsby and Marshall 1977; Smart 1977). Opponents of the age-21 MLDA theorized that even if a higher MLDA reduced alcohol use among minors, drinking rates and alcohol-related problems would surge among those age 21 and older. In other words, opponents believed that a rubber band effect would occur: When youth turned 21, they would drink to make up for lost time and thus drink at higher rates than they would had they been allowed to drink alcohol at an earlier age. A study by OMalley and Wagenaar (1991), however, refutes this theory. Using a national probability sample, OMalley and Wagenaar found that the lower rates of alcohol use due to a high legal drinking age continued even after youth turned 21. Although the MLDAs effect on youth alcohol consumption is important, a key consideration is whether the MLDA ultimately affects the rates of alcohol-related problems. Alcohol use among youth is related to numerous problems, including traffic crashes, drownings, vandalism, assaults, homicides, suicides, teenage pregnancies, and sexually transmitted diseases. Alcohol use is reported in one-fifth to two-thirds of many of these problems (Howland and Hingson 1988; Plant 1990; Roizen 1982; Smith and Kraus 1988; Strunin and Hingson 1992). As drinking rates increase or decrease, rates of alcohol-related problems may change in response. Decreases in Traffic Crashes Using various research methods, at least 50 studies have evaluated the effect of changes in the MLDA on traffic crashes (Wagenaar 1993). Some studies assessed policy changes in only one State, whereas others analyzed the MLDAs effect across multiple States. These studies evaluated the effect of MLDA changes on a variety of outcomes, including total traffic crash fatalities for youth; drinking-driving convictions; crashes resulting in injuries; and single-vehicle nighttime crash fatalities (the crashes most likely to involve alcohol). Most studies on the effect of lowering the MLDA found an increase in traffic crashes and traffic deaths among youth (Wagenaar 1993). Of the 29 studies completed since the early 1980s that evaluated increases in the MLDA, 20 showed significant decreases in traffic crashes and crash fatalities. Only three clearly found no change in traffic crashes involving youth. The remaining six studies had equivocal results. Based on results from research studies such as these, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) estimated that in 1987 alone, 1,071 traffic crash fatalities were prevented because of the MLDA of 21 (NHTSA 1989). Since 1984 researchers have been investigating whether changes in the MLDA also affect other alcohol-related problems. Of the four studies conducted to date that focused on other social and health consequences of alcohol use, three found an inverse relationship between the MLDA and alcohol-related problems: A higher legal drinking age was correlated with a lower number of alcohol problems among youth. The New York State Division of Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse (1984) found a 16-percent decrease in rates of vandalism in four States that raised the MLDA. In a study of an increase of the MLDA in Massachusetts, Hingson and colleagues (1985) did not find significant changes in the rates of nonmotor-vehicle trauma, suicide, or homicide. Smith (1986), however, found an increase in non-traffic-related hospital admissions following decreases in the MLDA in two Australian states. Jones and colleagues (1992) found lower rates of death caused by suicides, motor vehicle crashes, pedestrian accide nts, and other injuries in States with higher MLDAs. More research is needed to characterize the full effect of the MLDA on rates of alcohol-related injuries and on problems other than motor vehicle crashes. THE ROLE OF ENFORCEMENT Research indicates that a higher MLDA results in fewer alcohol-related problems among youth and that the MLDA of 21 saves the lives of well over 1,000 youth each year (NHTSA 1989; Jones et al. 1992). What is compelling is that the effect of the higher MLDA is occurring with little or no enforcement. A common argument among opponents of a higher MLDA is that because many minors still drink and purchase alcohol, an MLDA of 21 does not work. The evidence shows, however, that although many youth still consume alcohol, they drink less and experience fewer alcohol-related injuries and deaths than they did under lower MLDAs (Wagenaar 1993). A more appropriate discussion, therefore, is not whether the MLDA should again be lowered but whether the current MLDA can be made even more effective. Despite laws prohibiting the sale or provision of alcohol to people under age 21, minors throughout the United States can easily obtain alcohol from many sources. Buyers who appear to be younger than 21 can successfully purchase alcohol from licensed establishments without showing age identification in 50 percent or more of their attempts (Forster et al. 1994, 1995; Preusser and Williams 1992). In addition, although many youth purchase alcohol themselves, most youth indicate that they generally obtain alcohol through social contacts over age 21 (Wagenaar et al. 1996b; Jones-Webb et al. in press). These social contactswho include friends, siblings, parents, coworkers, and strangers approached outside of alcohol establishmentspurchase alcohol and then either provide or sell it to minors. Commercial establishments licensed to sell alcohol, as well as social sources, face potential criminal penalties, fines, license suspensions, and lawsuits for selling or providing alcohol to minors. So why do they still supply alcohol to youth? One reason is that policies are not actively enforced. For policies to deter specific behaviors effectively, people must believe that they have some chance of being caught and that they will face swift consequences for noncompliance (Gibbs 1975; Ross 1992). Wolfson and colleagues (1996b) found that only 38 percent of the alcohol merchants they surveyed thought it was likely that they would be cited for selling alcohol to a minor. Further research is needed to determine whether social sources are aware of their legal liability for providing alcohol to youth and whether they perceive a high likelihood of facing penalties for doing so. Laws prohibiting the sale and provision of alcohol to minors are not well enforced (Wagenaar and Wolfson 1995), and systems for enforcing the legislation vary by State. Typically, however, enforcement systems use both State administrative agencies, usually called State Alcohol Beverage Control (ABC) agencies, and local law enforcement agencies, such as police departments and county sheriffs. Enforcement of MLDA laws has focused primarily on penalizing underage drinkers for illegal alcohol possession or consumption (Wagenaar and Wolfson 1995), an unintended and unanticipated consequence of the MLDA (Mosher 1995; Wolfson and Hourigan in press). For every 1,000 minors arrested for alcohol possession, only 130 establishments that sell alcohol to them have actions taken against them, and only 88 adults who purchase alcohol for minors face criminal penalties. Wagenaar and Wolfson (1994) estimate that only 5 of every 100,000 incidents of minors drinking result in a fine, license revocation, or license suspension of an alcohol establishment. An in-depth review of enforcement actions in 295 counties in 4 States (Kentucky, Michigan, Montana, and Oregon) showed that in a 3-year period, 27 percent of the counties took no action against licensed establishments for selling alcohol to minors, and 41 percent of those counties made no arrests of adults who provided alcohol to minors (Wagenaar and Wolfson 1995). The States were selected for their diversity of alcohol-control systems and availability of data. Although the majority of counties took at least one action against alcohol establishments and adults who provided alcohol to youth, many did not take actions frequently. As noted earlier, only a tiny proportion of incidents of minors drinking results in fines or other penalties for establishments that sell alcohol. Some reasons that enforcement agencies do not cite or arrest illegal providers include (1) perceived acceptance of underage drinking by community members, (2) lack of community encouragement to increase enforcement of the MLDA, and (3) lack of resources (Wolfson et al. 1995). Given the low level of enforcement activity, it is not surprising that many adults do not hesitate to sell or give alcohol to minors. To create a deterrent effect, we need to increase the likelihood of facing negative consequences for illegally selling or providing alcohol to youth. One approach is to encourage ABC and local law enforcement agencies to increase enforcement against illegal alcohol providers. Preusser and colleagues (1994) found dramatic reductions in alcohol sales to minors (from 59 percent at baseline to 26 percent I year later) following an enforcement campaign involving three sting operations in which underage males attempted to purchase alcohol. In addition to increasing enforcement of the MLDA, other procedures and policies can be implemented to improve the effectiveness of MLDA laws. To ensure that adults do not sell or provide alcohol to minors, both public and institutional policies can be developed that complement MLDA laws (Wagenaar et al. 1996a). Alcohol establishments, for example, can implement several policies and practices, including (1) requiring all alcohol servers to receive responsible service training on how to check age identification and refuse sales to teenagers, (2) establishing systems to monitor servers to prevent illegal sales to youth, and (3) posting warning signs (Wolfson et al. 1996a,b). Wolfson and colleagues (1996a,b) found that establishments adhering to these policies were less likely to sell alcohol to young women who appeared to be under age 21 and who did not present age identification. THE ONGOING MLDA DEBATE Despite an abundance of research demonstrating the effectiveness of the age-21 MLDA at saving lives and reducing alcohol-related problems, several States are again considering lowering their legal age limits for drinking. Louisianas MLDA of 21 was recently challenged in court on the premise that it violates the States constitutional law regarding age discrimination. Louisianas State Supreme Court concluded, however, that . . . statutes establishing the minimum drinking age at a level higher than the age of majority are not arbitrary because they substantially further the appropriate governmental purpose of improving highway safety, and thus are constitutional (Manuel v. State of Louisiana [La. 1996]). In other words, because the MLDA was based on empirical evidence that such laws saved lives, the court decided that the law was not arbitrary and thus did not violate Louisianas constitution. Despite the Louisiana decision, the MLDA of 21 also may be challenged in other States. CONCLUSION The same arguments used to lower the MLDA 20 years ago are being used today (see sidebar, pp. 216-217). Despite ongoing debates about the MLDA, research demonstrates the effectiveness of a higher MLDA in preventing alcohol-related injuries and deaths among youth. As the MLDAs were lowered, rates of injuries and deaths increased; when the MLDAs were raised, injuries and deaths significantly decreased. The benefit of using environmental (i.e., external) approaches, such as the MLDA, is further supported by the fact that drinking rates were reduced even after youth turned age 21. In contrast, individual approaches (e.g., school-based programs) have generated only short-term reductions in underage drinking. This finding suggests that to create long-term changes in youth drinking and alcohol-related problems, strategies that change the environment should be used. Despite the MLDA of 21, minors still have easy access to alcohol from commercial and social sources. The observed benefits of the MLDA have occurred with little or no active enforcement; simply by increasing enforcement levels and deterring adults from selling or providing alcohol to minors, even more injuries and deaths related to alcohol use among youth can be prevented each year.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
When I was ten years old my Father took me to Universal Studios in Orlando Florida during summer vacation. It is one of the most memorable experiences of my life. It was my first time on an airplane, so I was a little nervous. It felt like forever while we sat in the plane waiting to take off. Finally, I heard the pilot say Ã¢â¬Å"prepare for take off.Ã¢â¬ IÃ¢â¬â¢ll admit I was a little scared, but as the plane lifted off the runway, I was ok. The plane ride there was three hours long. It was a little bumpy, but other then that, everything went well. We landed in Orlando. The airport was gigantic. After walking for a while, we found the baggage claim. It took us a while to find all of our suitcases. We rented a car and drove to myÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦My cousin Audrey saw how many times it went upside-down and decided not go on. Brandon and I made fun of her, but once I was strapped to my seat, I was having second thoughts myself. We took off in what felt like a fractio n of a second. Before I knew it, I was being whipped around sharp turns and flipped around loops. It was so much fun! When we got off and walked toward the exit, we saw a wall of television screens, which was showing candid shots of us on the ride. We both looked terrified. It was hilarious. My mom still has the picture. We went on a few more rides and then stopped to get something to eat. Now it was my turn to pick a ride. We walked to one called Dr. Dooms Fear Fall. We sat down in a row of four, with our legs dangling. After a few minutes, the voice of Dr. Doom was heard. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t remember exactly what he said, but I do remember him saying Ã¢â¬Å" Prepare to Die!Ã¢â¬ All of a sudden we shot up 150 feet into the air and then pushed back down faster then gravity. We thought it was over, but it shot us up again. It was a very exhilarating experience. The day was coming to an end. Audrey picked the last ride. She chose the Dueling Dragons. It was a double track, near-miss rol ler coaster. You had a choice between fire and ice. My Dad and I chose fire, and My Uncle Joe, Brandon and Audrey chose ice. We started off fast, going down a straightaway, heading right for each other. Then both coasters tore up with a series of twists,Show MoreRelatedMy Summer Vacation At Toronto1538 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesTwo summers ago in 2014 I took my annual summer vacation to Toronto. I spent two months with my aunt, uncle, and cousins. Around that time everyone had the World Cup fever, rooting for their country or other countries. For much of the beginning of my stay I sequestered myself in my room surrounded only by my electronic companions. By mid-July I adapted to a daily routine of afternoon wake up, brunch, and returning back to my room to scroll through Instagram and check my Snapchat. Occasionally I wouldRead MorePersonal Narrative : My Summer Vacation1264 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBetween my sophomore and junior years at college, a chance came up for me to spend the summer vacation working on a ranch in Argentina. My roommateÃ¢â¬â¢s father was in the cattle business, and he wanted Ted to see something of it. Ted said he would go if he could take a friend, and he chose me. The idea of spending two months on the fabled Argentine Pampas was exciting. Then I began having second thoughts. I had never been very far from New England, and I had been homesick my first few weeks at collegeRead Moremy favorite summer vacation getaways918 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Have you ever been on a vacation outside of the United States? Vacations can be very enjoyable, fun, and memorable. There are many different vacation destinations that attract visitors and tourists today. Two of my favorite vacations were during the summer months following my completion of fifth and sixth grade. When I was in fifth grade, our family vacationed at the Atlantis Resort in the Bahamas. We went to Wildwood Crest, New Jersey the following year after I completed sixth gradeRead MoreMy First Day Of Summer Vacation1906 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesschool and I was very excited because after school, we also had our first day of summer vacation.When school ended my dad came and picked me up,we had to get ready quick we had to leave In two hours. I ate lunch and it was delicious, When I was done I speeded to my bathroom and took a shower in one flash. When It was time I said good-bye to my mom and my siblings,sadly they couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t go .We went to Chicago first because my godfather was gonna drive. When we got to Chicago we slept there for one day andRead MoreShould School Go Year Round? Essay1471 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages During the school year, there is one thing that will always be on every childÃ¢â¬â¢s mind: How far away is summer vacation. We all experienced this as children, and it kept us focused on getting through the school year so we did not need to go to summer school. For many students they looked forward to all of the amazing things they can do in the summer with their friends and family. A struggle with education for a long time is having kids not forget the information that they learned during the schoolRead More My Summer Vacation in Florida Essay1288 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHave you ever been on a vacation? To me a vacation is a time to be with friends or family. When I think of vacations, I think of packing, the flight or drive, and relaxation. Not only is it very exciting to go on a vacation, but you get closer to the people that go with you. Linda, my best friends mom had asked me if I would want to go with their family to Florida. When she asked me I thought she was kidding, but when she said, I need to know because if you are I need to get you a airplane ticketRead MoreDescriptive Essay : My Summer Vacation866 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSummer Trip Going to the coast is so exciting! This last summer I went to Cresent City and Eureka, California and had a good time. All though there was a lot of people in a suburban and it was very crammed. In the car there was me, my dad, stepmom, my sister Brenda, her fiance, and five of my other little siblings. It was one long ride to our first destination, Crescent City. Ã¢â¬Å"How much longer?Ã¢â¬ I asked my dad. Ã¢â¬Å"About two more hours, we are about to stop and get drinks.Ã¢â¬ he exclaimed, Ã¢â¬Å"WhatRead MoreHow I Will Spend My Summer Vacation615 Words Ã |Ã 2 PagesHow I will Spend My Summer Vacation There is an old proverb that goes, all work and no play makes Jack a dull boy. I agree. For me, the summer vacation will provide me with a rare opportunity to take a well-deserved rest after a year of hard work. Last summer, I chose to engage in activities that would help me relax my mind and recoup not only my health but also my vitality. This summer will be no different. Towards this end, I plan to tour a number of amazing locations, read at least two interestingRead MoreYear Round Schooling Should Be A Positive Change1231 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesYear Round Schooling Could be a Positive Change Summer vacation. For most children and teens, the phrase conjures up images of hot, sunny days and vacations with the whole family to far-off places. We all envision lazy afternoons relaxing on the beach, playing in water parks, and going on picnics. But what happens when summer ends and the reality of another year of school sinks in? A large portion of the knowledge gained during the last school year is lost over the long idle months and must beRead MoreDescriptive Essay About My Summer Vacation1300 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesyear in fourth grade, and my family and I were excited to start our summer vacation. As we pulled our trailer on the southbound I-5 freeway towards San Diego, I could see the temperature gauge on my fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s truck slowly dropping to the mid 70Ã¢â¬â¢s. We were in a packed car with my father, mother, older brother,younger sister, snacks and drinks everywhere, and me, entranced by the game on my brand new iPod that I recently received on my birthday. I had gone on camping trips my whole life so I was thrilled
Tier II Case Study Project by ED5553 Ã¢â¬â Assessment-Based Reading Instruction Winter, 2012 Table of Contents Introduction Description of the Student Background Information PART 1: Administration of Assessments DIBELS: A Universal Assessment Battery Description and Purpose of the Assessment Setting for the Assessment Description of the Assessment Administration Process Results of the Assessment Analysis of the Assessment Results Running Records Description and Purpose of the Assessment The running record allows you to record the childÃ¢â¬â¢s reading behavior as he or she reads from the book. The purpose of a running record is a tool used to determine word recognitionÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Place a check mark above each word that is read correctly. If the child reads incorrectly, record above the word what the child reads. If the child is reading too fast for you to record the running record, ask him or her to pause until you catch up. Intervene as little as possible while the child is reading. If the child is stuck and unable to continue, wait 5 to10 seconds and tell him or her the word. If the child seems confused, indicate the point of confusion and say, Ã¢â¬Å"Try again.Ã¢â¬ Results of the Assessment Student read 156 words at 98% accuracy. She had 3 errors and 2 self corrects. She missed boredom, I told her the word. She changed plan for idea, setting, characters, and beginning. She had trouble with middle and end. She did know the main idea but could not list supporting details. I would move this student to a higher level text. This text was easy for the student. Analysis of the Assessment Results Student read 156 words at 98% accuracy. She had 3 errors and 2 self corrects. She missed boredom, I told her the word. She changed plan for idea, setting, characters, and beginning. She had trouble with middle and end. She did know the main idea but could not list supporting details. This student needs practice in retelling story in sequence. She had issues with middle and end. I think she was going for a fluency score and read too fast. She had problems orally retelling middle and end. This level
In the united States alone, approximately 50 companies, universities, and government organizations are developing and producing over 155 unmanned aircraft designs. The Department of Homeland uses Drones to lice the nations borders to deter unlawful border crossing by unauthorized aliens. Criminal and terrorist and to detect and interdict the smuggling of weapons and drugs. Customs and Border Protection uses them to patrol along the US/Mexican border. Drones have a number of benefits for Law enforcement agencies.Law enforcement agencies consider drones an Inexpensive way to get better situational awareness during dangerous operations, such as drug busts and hostage situations, can enter environments that are dangerous to human life Firefighters are also investigating drones and how they may help them scout wildfires, identify hard-to- octet hotshots, or find trapped people in areas that helicopters cant reach. Some police departments are testing them for uses such as photographing accident sites and finding criminal suspects. The uses of drones are very efficient. First of all they are cost benefit.Drones themselves are much cheaper than helicopters or other aircraft, plus they cost much less to operate per hour than do other aircraft. Unmanned aircraft will make certain activities easier, safer, more efficient, and more cost effective. Secondly drones will take significant danger away from law enforcement officials who put their lives at risk every day. With the risk of danger officers can function much more normally than having to worry about the dangers that come with the Job as much. Finally, they are effective in tracking down illegal activity and can carry our dangerous surveillance tasks.Drones can help the law enforcement agencies out In a multitude of ways. They can help monitor a heavy crown situation. They can go in locations that helicopters or other vehicles cannot go when searching for something or someone. With a drone it can definitely extend the existing capabilities of law enforcement agencies. Law enforcement authorities say drones can be a cost- effective technology to help with a host of policing efforts, Like locating bombs, flung lost children, monitoring weather and wildlife or assisting rescue workers in natural disasters. The FAA sends out Certificates of Authorizations (Coos) to fly unmanned aircraft. Since January 2012, according to congressional testimony presented the Federal Aviation Administration has authorized 106 federal, state and local government entities to fly drones, within U. S. Certificate of Waiver or Authorization (COCA); private sector entities must apply for special airworthiness certificates in the experimental category. Such as NASA, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and other federal agencies, police departments and universities can apply for these certificates of authorization. The rule announced today calls for agencies to first show they can operate a drone before getting an FAA permit.Drones must fly within 400 feet of the ground, remain in sight of the operator and stay clear of airports, unless they have received permission from the Federal Aviation Administration. Police, fire and similar departments will be able to fly drones weighing as much as 25 pounds. When the FAA issues out authorizations out, he FAA requires the drone operators to be licensed pilots in manned aircraft. This is because the person operating the drones needs experience in flying. They must also receive training in the drone they will be flying.The sensor operators do not need- manned aircraft certificates; Just training in the environment the (drone) will be flying and the equipment itself. When regulating the use the use of drones only the FAA regulate the use of drones. The Federal Aviation Administration authorizes military and non-military (academic institutions; federal, state, and local governments including law enforcement entities; and private sector entities) USA operations on a limited basis after conducting a case-by-case safety review, It is clear that drones are useful for surveillance and law enforcement while creating significant concerns over privacy rights.Opponents of drone surveillance have complained that the use of unmanned aircraft on America n soil infringes upon fundamental privacy interest and the ability to freely associate with others. Many say that drone violate the privacy rights that are in the Fourth Amendment. However some still feel that drones are beneficial when used correctly. Lawmakers in at least 11 states are proposing various restrictions on the use of drones The city of Charlottesville, Va. , passed a two-year moratorium and police officers are prohibited from using in criminal cases any evidence obtained by drones.In Florida, a pending bill will require the police to get a warrant to use drones in an investigation; a Virginia statewide moratorium on drones passed both houses. International Association of Chiefs of Police has guidelines for law enforcement agencies to use drones. The ICP has created recommended guidelines for the use of unmanned aircraft and I have attached it to this paper. The highlights of the guidelines are Equipping the aircraft with weapons of any type is strongly discouraged, and drones equipped with cameras or other sensors is strongly discouraged due to concerns over reliability and safety.As of right now the state of Mississippi has no recorded use of drones. However I feel that the Mississippi Department of Public Safety would be a great program to have the use of a drone. Mississippi Department of Public Safety encompasses the Highway Patrol and Bureau of Investigation, which are vital aspects in the law enforcement field in this state. Drones can be very beneficial to these law enforcement agencies. Drones can be used in the Highway patrol department in assessing car accident or routine traffic problems that occur on interstates.With the Bureau of Investigation, drones can help find clues about murder or robbery cases. Also can help out in missing person cases and fires that were suspected of arson. These law enforcement agencies can greatly benefit from the use of drone if the drones are used correctly. In conclusion the use of drones should be greatly considered as long as laws are in placed to help control them. The law enforcement agencies can really use the drones to speed up and actually account for hints involved in a crime.Guidelines should be in place for drones so that they would not interfere so much with the constitutional rights that citizens are given. Recommended Guidelines for the use of Unmanned Aircraft BACKGROUND: Rapid advances in technology have led to the development and increased use of unmanned aircraft. That technology is now making its way into the hands of law enforcement officers nationwide. We also live in a culture that is extremely sensitive to the idea of preventing unnecessary government intrusion into any facet of our lives. Personal rights are cherished and legally protected by the Constitution.Despite their proven effectiveness, concerns about privacy threaten to overshadow the benefits this technology promises to bring to public safety. From enhanced officer safety by exposing unseen dangers, to finding those most vulnerable who may have wandered away from their caregivers, the potential benefits are irrefutable. However, privacy concerns are an issue that must be dealt with effectively if a law enforcement agency expects the public to support the use of AU by their police. The Aviation Committee has been involved in the development of unmanned aircraft policy and regulations for several years. TheCommittee recommends the following guidelines for use by any law enforcement agency contemplating the use of unmanned aircraft. ICP Aviation Committee August 2012 DEFINITIONS: 1. Model Aircraft- A remote controlled aircraft used by hobbyists, which is manufactured and operated for the purposes of sport, recreation and/or competition. 2. Unmanned Aircraft (CIA) An aircraft that is intended to navigate in the air without an on-board pilot. Also called Remote Piloted Aircraft and drones. 3. AU Flight Crewmen A pilot, visual observer, payload operator or other person assigned duties for a AU for the purpose of flight. . Unmanned Aircraft Pilot- A person exercising control over an unmanned aircraft during flight. COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT: 1. Law enforcement agencies desiring to use AU should first determine how they will use this technology, including the costs and benefits to be gained. 2. The agency should then engage their community early in the planning process, including their governing body and civil liberties advocates. 3. The agency should assure the community that agency will operate the aircraft in full compliance with the mandates of the Constitution, federal, state and local law governing search and seizure. . The community should be provided an opportunity to review and comment on agency procedures as they are being drafted. Where appropriate, recommendations should be considered for adoption in the policy. 5. As with the community, the news media should be brought into the process early in its development. SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS: 1. The AU should have the ability to capture flight time by individual flight and cumulative over a period of time. The ability to reset the flight time counter should be restricted to a supervisor or administrator. 2.The aircraft itself should be painted in a high visibility paint scheme. This will facilitate line of sight control by the aircraft pilot and low persons on the ground to monitor the location of the aircraft. This recommendation recognizes that in some cases where officer safety is a concern, such as high risk warrant service, high visibility may not be optimal. However, most situations of this type are conducted covertly and at night. Further, given the ability to observe a large area from an aerial vantage point, it may not be necessary to fly the aircraft directly over the target location. . Equipping the aircraft with weapons of any type is strongly discouraged. Given the current state of the technology, the ability to effectively deploy weapons from a small CIA is doubtful. Further, public acceptance of airborne use of force is likewise doubtful and could result in unnecessary community resistance to the program. 4. The use of model aircraft, modified with cameras, or other sensors, is discouraged due to concerns over reliability and safety. 2 OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES: 1. AU operations require a Certificate of Authorization (COCA) from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).A law enforcement agency contemplating the use of AU should contact the FAA early in the planning process to determine the requirements for obtaining a COCA. 2. CIA will only be operated by personnel, both lots and crew members, who have been trained and certified in the operation of the system. All agency personnel with CIA responsibilities, including command officers, will be provided training in the policies and procedures governing their use. 3. All flights will be approved by a supervisor and must be for a legitimate public safety mission, training, or demonstration purposes. 4.All flights will be documented on a form designed for that purpose and all flight time shall be accounted for on the form. The reason for the flight and name of the supervisor approving will also be documented. 5. An authorized supervisor/administrator will commented. Any changes to the flight time counter will be documented. 6. Unauthorized use off CIA will result in strict accountability. 7. Except for those instances where officer safety could be jeopardized, the agency should consider using a Reverse 911 telephone system to alert those living and working in the vicinity of aircraft operations (if such a system is available).If such a system is not available, the use of patrol car public address systems should be considered. This will not only provide a level of safety should the aircraft make an uncontrolled landing, but citizens may also be able to assist with the incident. 8. Where there are specific and articulated grounds to believe that the CIA will collect evidence of criminal wrongdoing and if the CIA will intrude upon reasonable expectations of privacy, the agency will secure a search warrant prior to conducting the flight.